Vision of Leadership

Vision of leadership

A distinct characteristic of leadership is a vision. Vision determines the direction or cause of action that the entire team will follow. It is an ambitious view of the organization that everyone can believe and is realistic to achieve. When a leader establishes a vision for his/her people; daily decisions and actions in the organization respond to problem and challenges facing the company in a manner that drives the it to the future. In my readiness/preparation to be a future leader in the corporate world, I believe transformative leadership is the way to go. Employees or followers are motivated or impacted by an individual whose character and actions inspire them to engage in activities that lead to a change in the organization as well as the society. In contrast to transformational leadership, transaction is based on interest and bargains achieved by the parties. This means the organization will be faced with a series of boycotts and industrial strikes if their interest, demands or desires are not attained (Uni-President Enterprises Corporation, 2015).

Mahatma Gandhi inspires me to be a future leader since his actions created an impression amongst the Indians as well as the world. First, Gandhi’s resilience in achieving freedom for Indians in south Africa as well as India proved to be remarkable. Despite the constant repressive laws impose by the British emperors in South Africa and India, he was able to see the rights of the Indians protected. Moreover, Gandhi inspired his followers as his actions reflected his true personality. Though he was a respectable and wealthy person, he chose to ride in the third-class carriage. Besides, he took every challenge that faced in a positive manner which to success. For example, when imprisoned in South Africa as well as India, he took the opportunity to read books and reflect on his life a chance that he did not have as a free man (Rowold and Borgmann, 2013).

As a future leader, I am eying for transformative leadership style in managing corporate affairs. This is because it is highly effective in achieving the desired goals and objectives. Transformative leadership inspires a shared vision which is crucial in providing orientation and engaging the followers towards success (Barnett and Mccormick, 2012, p.653). I prefer such style because it has been proven to be of high impact and crucial in the development of an organization culture that is receptive to progress and change. For example; this style is amongst the favorite in the nursing profession whereby the matron’s unique leadership styles motivate other nurses to modify their behavior, values, and behaviors.

My vision of leadership

My preparedness when it comes to leadership stems from two areas; that is, education and passion. Currently, I believe the MBA is a crucial step in becoming a leader in the corporate world. The skill gained in the lectures and tutorials concerning effective leadership will allow me to modify, understand as well as practice key areas in becoming a leader. From the program, I have become acquainted with the importance of ethics in a leader. The need to promote ethical behavior such as honesty, integrity, and hard work can be transferred to employees through a leaders actions. Followers learn from the behavior and actions of a leader. Besides, they are likely to imitate them as they undertake their daily tasks. Hence, as a leader it is crucial to always positively impact the followers (Rowold and Borgmann, 2013).

The second element is passion. Good leaders are always passionate about what they do. I am passionate in each and every task I perform at work as well as at personal level. with passion, I go an extra mile in order to meet the needs of the clients at the workplace. Taking time to create a mutually beneficial relationship that lasts in the life of the organization. Besides, I also take an extra mile to assist or advise fellow team members. By taking interest in others and enabling them to develop their skills in areas that they are weak. I am also aware of my strengths such as good communication skills, effective in creating interpersonal relationships as well as the ability to plan and oversee an event to the final stages (Barnett and Mccormick, 2012, p.657).

Key areas that I need to develop in management and understanding the situational aspects of leadership. By the end of this module, I believe my skills in assessment and application of various situational leadership styles will be improved. Through matching a particular leadership style with an appropriate situation or circumstance I believe I will improve my ability to succeed in the various management situation. Having developed the skills in leadership I believe I will cover the areas that my fellow colleagues have advised me to improve. For example, while dealing with individuals older than me, I still believe transformative leadership is appropriate and area that is clearly dominated by transactional leadership.

Reference

Barnett, K., and Mccormick, J., 2012. Leadership and Team Dynamics in Senior Executive           Leadership Teams. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 40(6),        pp.653–671.

Rowold, J., and Borgmann, L., 2013. Are leadership constructs really independent? Leadership    & Organization Development Journal Leadership & Org Development J, 34(1), pp.20–         43.

Uni-President Enterprises Corporation, 2015. Corporate Vision – A Food Symphony Enjoyed by All of Food, Retrieved from http://www.uni-president.com/01aboutus/aboutus03.asp

Leadership and Change

Resistance to change

Resistance is a key external manifestation that individuals show as they try to cope with change. This is a state of mind that reflects an individual unwillingness or unreceptiveness to change the way they think or behave. The behaviour of individuals are the key symptoms of resistance to change. The resistance is through active opposition or attempts to avoid or escape doing certain tasks within the organization. According to Lindberg (2013), some individual fail to thrive or resist during the process of change due to lack of information, lack of knowledge or skills as well as need to attend to other matters that interfere with the individual’s willingness or readiness. In the change management process, it is vital for individuals to be educated or informed on the process of change in order to acquire understanding, skills and create a mind-set that is willing to accept the change (Tucker and Lam, 2014, p200).

Most organizations fail in the change management process because of the speed with which it is initiated in the organization. Proper change management should be done in a simultaneous manner in order for the employees to grasp and modify their mentality concerning the situation (the emergent approach to change) (Hellriegel, 2011). This model was developed by Kotter and rests on the premise that change should be made in continuous improvements and learning. Moreover, most individuals carry certain facts, beliefs, and values concerning a situation which is crucial to his/her mind-set. Once they are established they become very critical in the decision making process and setting once’ priorities. Convincing an individual to change such values and beliefs in a moment or instance is difficult. A rational process has to be followed in order to slowly modify his/her mind-set over time. Besides, Kotter view change as a bottom-up approach, that is; it is initiated by the employees as opposed to the management (Hellriegel, 2011).

To support this argument, Dunphy and Stace (1993), posit three step model of change that maintains that organizations need to support situational or contingency model of change. The model indicates how to vary change strategies to optimum fit with the changing environment. Besides, their model is based on the premise that contingency model is based on the premise that situational variables affect the structure and performance of the organization and that no two organizations are alike to face same situational variables. Hence, it is vital for the management to understand the reason behind the resistance through the contingency model (Hellriegel, 2011).

Some common values that may be initiated through change include; quality, learning, customer satisfaction, integrity as well as teamwork. For example; some employees may be unwilling or resistant to learning as they believe their knowledge are best compared to anyone else in the organization. Any change process can be good or bad and can impact individuals positively or negatively but not in a neutral manner. Change makes individuals be different from what they were before (Tucker and Lam, 2014, p215).

Factors resisting change in organizations

If individual belief, values, and behaviours provide them with essential ways of meeting their needs, then adapting and holding on to them in resistance could be the only way. Resistance in most situations is as a result of employees being worse off than before. For example; as a result of the change process, new tasks and duties may be introduced in addition to the current ones. The employees in the process end up performing more tasks without salary increment or an incentive to motivate them. In certain circumstances, the resistance as a result of change can transform to a problem. Through understanding resistance, it is possible to develop a solution to the process (Lindberg, 2013).

Various factors propel individuals to resist change in the organization such as a lack of control in the process, inconsistency of change with their values or the change will affect their ability to earn. Resistance to change can be controlled in the planning stage. Such factors likely to affect the ability of management to effect the change can be anticipated in advance and enable the organization to craft a response mechanism. According to Lindberg (2013), overcoming change is a method of impacting the values, beliefs, feelings, and behaviour of individuals. Through clarification of facts, beliefs and suggesting more viable beliefs, resistance to change can be contained.

Intervention strategies that respond to the values, behaviour or beliefs are established to manage the resistance. In the wake of globalization, many parastatals and public bodies are initiating changes in their organization on the way they operate. Transactions are transferred to the online or cloud platforms in order to reach more individuals and other organizations. Consequently, the shift from bur are critic processes to entrepreneurial processes that are faster has created resistance by most public servants. As a way to manage the change, the employer intervenes by guaranteeing their values through clarifying various contentious issues. Besides, through forums and workshops, the employees are taken through training that educates/informs them on the reasons why the new values, beliefs, and behaviors are good for the organization as well as their employment.

Conclusion

The world is not a static place but rather a dynamic environment that demands constant modification.in order to survive in any given industry, companies must be swift to accessing and responding to changes. In order for the company to reduce any resistance or unwillingness, it should effect the change process in a simultaneous manner and try as much as possible to clarify areas that might lead to doubt. These areas include behavior, values or beliefs that may seem being jeopardized by the change process.

References

Lindberg, D., 2013. Change Management Tools for Systemic Results. Change Management: An   International Journal, 12(3), pp.1–6.

Tucker, E., and Lam, S., 2014. Dynamic leadership – a leadership shortage solution. Strategic       HR Review, 13(4/5), pp.199–204.

Hellriegel, D. 2011. Principles of organizational behavior, 13 Edition. Mason, OH: South- Western

 

 

 

Leadership Styles

Comparison in Leadership Styles

Various leadership styles exist for a leader or manager to control/direct a team to a certain vision such as autocratic and democratic leadership styles. While both managers and leaders all employ various leadership styles, they are able to dispense them based on the situation at hand. This is because while leaders have to portray a positive image that impacts the behavior and attitude of the followers. Managers, on the other hand, need/require tasks or duties to be completed irrespective of whether they are creating a positive or negative image for the leader (Rowold and Borgmann, 2013). For example, in order for employees to follow managers’ instructions, an incentive to loose or gain is established to coerce the person to work. On the other hand, no reward or punishments have to be used or administered by a leader for a follower to work. The follower willingly works in support or response to the vision created by the leader (Barnett and Mccormick, 2012).

In theory of management, bureaucracy was the order of the day in the management of organizations in the 1960s and 1970s. However, their central command or control point makes it difficult for subordinates to offer their sentiments to the management. As a result, the ability of the organization to respond to challenges or contingencies is hindered. The modern firm is quick to respond to challenges and every individual is considered crucial and can access the management easily. Subordinates are given democratic powers to influence the choice or direction of the organization. Key leadership styles adopted by managers and leaders include transactional leadership, transformational and situational leadership (Day, 2012, p.109).

Transactional leadership was a favorite choice in the 1970s and 1980s. The style is based on the premise that the leader and the follower interests have to be served for progress to be attained. Efforts dispensed by followers to achieve certain goals for the company are one in exchange for a reward (Rowold and Borgmann, 2013). This style has been criticized for the lack of dynamism. In contrast, transformational leadership entails the engagement of followers by transformational leaders. Developed by Burns in 1973, this style is a predominant approach to leadership (Day, 2013). It is best suited in uncertain times where employees need inspiration and empowerment from the leaders in order to act towards the goals and objectives of the company. Another common approach to leadership is situational leadership developed by Hersey and Blanchard. The approach posits that different situations require or call for different leadership styles. The leader adjusts his style based on the context (Barnett and Mccormick, 2012).

Appropriate leadership style in organization

Most scholars argue that no single leadership style exists to manage or lead the subordinates (CMI, 2013). However, they argue that the leader has to consider the context before using a particular style. Various factors have to be considered before using a particular leadership style on the subordinates such as the type of the organization (private, non-profit or government institution), financial performance or whether the company is undergoing changes (Conger, 2010).  For example, government bodies tend to be managed or led with a transactional leadership style. Besides, with a bureaucratic system that depends on the chain of command, orders are issued from above which the subordinates are required to follow. Subordinates’ inputs are hardly recognized by the top level management. On the contrary, private entities focus on talent and skills when hiring their employees. Each individual is considered a key resource to the attainment or success of the organization. A democratic or transformative leadership regime is adopted by most organizations. Decision-making process trickles down to the last person in the hierarchy of the organization (Conger, 2010).

Another aspect that makes it difficult to use a single leadership style in the organization is most teams vary in the composition of individuals with respect to culture, age, and personality. For example; as a team member in a composition of individuals from generation Y (persons born between the 1980s and 1990s), we are considered to seek fulfillment at the workplace as opposed to a pay cheque (Conger, 2010). Hence, I prefer to be led by leaders or managers who take time or effort to assist them in their development through mentoring and coaching. In the contemporary organization, employees are less likely to accept a command and control leadership and prefer to offer some input in the decision-making process. The older generations such as the boomers are accustomed to a transactional leadership style that involved a lot of bargains and interest-based relationship to be created by the employer. Hence, some form of reward or incentive has to be offered in order to incentivize the employees to work.

Conclusion

Whichever leadership style a leader adopts, it is unlikely that he/she will enforce it throughout his/her career or a project. It is crucial for constant evaluations or assessments to be made to establish whether a particular style is affecting or leading to the desired progress. The leader should be prepared to vary the style depending on a particular situation for example; a leader cannot use a similar style to manage or lead the team during prosperity and in times of poor performance.

References

Barnett, K., and Mccormick, J., 2012. Leadership and Team Dynamics in Senior Executive     Leadership Teams. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 40(6),pp.653–671.

Conger, J.A., (2010). Developing leadership talent: Delivering on the promise of structure programs. In R. Silzer & B.E. Dowell (Eds.), Strategy-driven talent management: A leadership imperative (pp. 281-311). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Day, D. V. (2012). The nature of leadership development. In. D.V. Day & J. Antonakis (Eds.), The nature of leadership (pp. 108-140). Los Angeles, CA: SageBolman, L. G., and Deal,

Day, G.S., 2013. Innovation Prowess Leadership Strategies for Accelerating Growth. New           York: Wharton Digital Press.

Rowold, J., and Borgmann, L., 2013. Are leadership constructs really independent? Leadership & Organization Development Journal Leadership & Org Development J, 34(1), pp.20– 43.

 

Challenges of Managing Diverse Teams

Diversity in the team

The role of the team in achieving the shared goals and objectives has been embraced by many organizations.  A team setting in an organization allows functional, collaborative as well as specialty interaction amongst the members. Diverse teams are capable of viewing the problem from different dimensions which lead to sophistication and the development of high-quality solutions. Diverse teams encompass the differences amongst individuals. People differ on a personal level as well as concerning organization-related traits such as race, gender, education, marital status, tenure, values, beliefs and the position in the organization hierarchy (Zenger and Stinnett, 2010).

Tuckman and Jensen (1977), establish five key stages of team development for the members to share tasks and responsibilities effectively. The first stage is forming: whereby like-minded individuals or who share a similar purpose are identified, and a relationship process begins to shape. The ability to recruit like-minded individuals balances interpersonal differences and conflicts likely to affect the performance. The second phase is the storming stage whereby the team members share ideas, perceptions, and concepts regarding the team. In this stage, interpersonal conflicts are likely to arise over the best cause of action regarding the problems. To solve their differences, teammates depend on each other, pair up as well as fight-flight (Northouse, 2013).

In the norming stage, routines are established. These routines serve the needs of the team members as well as those of the entire group. The next step is performing which involves working efficiently to complete the tasks. Monitoring and review are also conducted at this stage to ensure changes or progress is made. The last stage is the adjournment, that is; after the completion of the tasks, the team or group is dismantled as the key objective or goal has been attained (Tuckman and Jensen, 1977). Individuals in teams are strong in one or two areas. Based on their strengths, they are assigned tasks or responsibility in areas that they perform extremely well.  For example, if an individual is extroverted, he/she will thrive in a task that involves high levels of interaction with other persons. Also, diversity of team members and their strengths makes it possible to identify which areas they will lead or duties be designated. For example, youths are considered to be tech savvy compared to a pensioner or octogenarian. Consequently, youth is comfortable in a workplace that is technologically advanced. Pensioners, on the other hand, prefer manual or paperwork systems that are cumbersome and procedural (Zenger and Stinnett, 2010).

Managing diversity in the workforce

In the wake of globalization, the contemporary workplace has made it difficult to maintain diversity. Managing a talented workforce from different cultural, spiritual as well as a different approach to life & challenges requires unique leadership skills and leadership style needed to manage the diverse workforce which is prone to conflicts that are capable of hindering the progress. If handled correctly, a diverse workforce is able to harness benefits from different cultures and background across the team members (Wegge and Shemla, 2015).

An example of a successful company with diversified workforce is Coca-Cola. The company has employed individuals from a different racial background, age, religion, culture as well as gender (Isaksen and Tidd 2012). Since the team members understand their background well, the company is able to launch products & services that suit a certain customer segment needs or preferences. The diversified Coca-Cola team has grown the company’s brands to be accepted in most multinationals across the world. Through hiring diversified workforce in regions where cultural background of the people could hinder the success of the product. By incorporating individuals from the society in question into the team, the company is able to learn the cultural practices of the community. Hence, it becomes easier to integrate the product or service into the society with minimal resistance (Isaksen and Tidd 2012).

In a diversified team, the members adapt to each other’s cultural, spiritual and personal beliefs. Since it ‘s hard to modify or change a person’s behavior, it can only be done through understanding or adapting to the other person’s behavior. The members understand how to interact with each other without offending or causing conflict in the workplace. In conclusion, diversity in the workplace is inevitable. People from different backgrounds present different skills and talents that are needed for the success of the company. It is crucial for managers or team leaders to possess or acquire skill in the wake of ever expanding industries as well as businesses (Wegge and Shemla, 2015)

Conclusion

Diversity in the workplace has become a key concern for most organizations. Young and old, black and white, men and women are all present at the workplace. The organization must consider each and every employee’s needs without sidelining or failure to attend to others. The employer ought to foster an environment that all the cultures, religion and personalities will work together to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization. A diversified workforce allows every employee’s values to be preserved without infringing those of his/her fellow employees.

References

Isaksen, S.G., and Tidd, J., 2012. Meeting the innovation challenge: leadership for transformation and growth. Chichester, England: John Wiley.

Tucker, E., and Lam, S., 2014. Dynamic leadership – a leadership shortage solution. Strategic   HR Review, 13(4/5), pp.199–204.

Northouse, P. G. 2013. Leadership Theory and Practice, Thousand Oak, CA: Sage Publications

Wegge, J. and Shemla, M., 2015. Managing Diverse Teams by Enhancing Team Identification: The Mediating Role of Perceived Diversity. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2015(1), pp.12464–12464.

Zenger J., H., and Stinnett, K., 2010. The Extraordinary Coach: How the Best Leaders Help          Others Grow, New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

 

Leadership and Ethics

 Theory behind leadership

Ethics has been long considered a critical aspect of a leader. Scholars are shifting their focus slowly towards ethical leadership to study how leaders proactively promote ethical behavior in an organization. According to Rubin (2010), ethical leaders demonstrate appropriate conduct in the organization through their interpersonal relationship, communication as well as decision making. Ethical leadership in an organization is positively associated with a number of desired outcomes from team members as well as subordinates. Key benefits linked to ethical leadership include; willingness to work, job satisfaction, commitment and improved perception of ethical climate (Brooks, 2014, p.125). Ethical leadership involves an individual that portrays both a moral person and a manager. The individual exhibits high standards of personal moral conduct as per the accepted standards (a moral person) and promotes the conduct to others (moral manager) (Brooks, 2014, 127).

Ethical leadership encompasses a two-sided view of leadership: deontological and teleological. According to Brooks (2014), deontological is a non-consequential theory that focuses on duty. This signifies that the morality of a certain action is determined through the details and processes of the action. The final result is not a factor in the clearly set moral choices that is, actions are independent of the outcomes. The ‘rule’ or the procedure is ruled out in advance. This theory was developed by Kant that views ethics as one’s sense of duty to a manner that they see as right. The morality of an individual is affected by the rational thought as opposed to his/her emotions. According to Kant, humans are capable of making case-by-case choices. For example, it is human nature of individuals to want to earn more at the workplace to meet their needs and wants. Hence, engage in activities that are morally wrong such as corruption. Being a corrupt person to meet your needs is a rational thing to do – though it is not morally best choice.

The second theory is teleological which posits that consequentialism of an action and its application are critical in a moral conclusion. The theory rests on the ground that in each and every decision it is possible to measure or estimate the results to assess whether or not the situation is moral or immoral (Northouse, 2013). For example, in many companies, the result justifies the decision. If the company bribes to acquire a business which improves the performance hence the acceptance of the company by the shareholders, then the decision is moral. However, this theory is criticized of its ability to make sacrifices to save more lives. For example; a drug company will view its actions as ethical in clinical trials that a number of participants succumb to the disease aggravated by the drug. The theory ignores other values and rests solely on the conclusion (Conger, 2010, p.281).

Ethical behavior

Various pieces of shreds of evidence exist to support that good or ethical behavior tend to improve positive results to the organization as well as the individual. In 1982, Johnson & Johnson medical products company faced a crisis after seven individuals died in Chicago after taking their Tylenol capsules that had been laced with cyanide. The company faced a moral question of whether to withdraw the drug from the market a move that will cost it millions of dollars or take no action at all. The company took the first choice and ended up spending $150 million. Until today the company exists due to a moral choice it made (Hellriegel, 2011).

As an example of unethical behavior, Dow Corning (DC) a pharmaceutical company that pioneered the development of breast implants. The company received various complaints from patients as well as doctors on their implants such as fatigue, cancer, arthritis and ruptured implants. After the withdrawal of the product, it became clear that the scientists at the company had questioned. From their study, out of 400 implants, 52 raptured during the test procedures. The company’s ethical stance led to billions of dollars in award claims that eventually led the company to bankruptcy. The managers’ unethical behavior destroyed the company.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is clear that a correlation exists between ethics of the workers and the success of business. Organizations are restricted in the modern day environment to operate without factoring the values of other individuals. The society, investors as well as the government have refused to associate with companies that engage in immoral acts. Hence, it is the duty of the leaders to ensure there is reasonable care of the company’s ethical measures and procedures. Besides, employees ought to be aware of ethics which is closely linked to the performance of the organization.

References 

Brooks, T., 2014. Ethical Citizenship and the Stakeholder Society. Ethical Citizenship, pp.125–      138.

Conger, J.A., (2010). Developing leadership talent: Delivering on the promise of structured   programs. In R. Silzer & B.E. Dowell (Eds.), Strategy-driven talent management: A            leadership imperative (pp. 281-311). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Northouse, P. G. 2013. Leadership Theory and Practice, Thousand Oak, CA: Sage Publications

Hellriegel, D. 2011. Principles of organizational behavior, 13 Edition. Mason, OH: South- Western